Operative hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive gynecological procedure in which an endoscopic optical lens is inserted through the cervix into the endometrial cavity to direct treatment of various types of intrauterine pathology.
Historically, urologists used the resectoscope to perform a transurethral prostatectomy. This instrument was later modified to accommodate gynecological applications.
Operative hysteroscopy became popular after improvements in endoscopic technology and instruments in the 1970s and after the introduction of fluid distension media in the 1980s.
Infertility physicians use diagnostic hysteroscopy to identify abnormal uterine structure, uterine fibroids, polyps, and scarring. Operative hysteroscopy occurs when the surgeon corrects such problems using special instruments inserted through the hysteroscope, most often at the same time as the diagnosis.