Sperm Chromatin Maturity Tests (CMA3/ANILINE BLUE)
ANILINE BLUE AND CMA3 STAINING TECHNIQUES
During spermatogenesis the chromatin of spermatozoa undergo different structural changes. The formation of mature spermatozoa involves 85% of histone replacement with transition proteins and protamines leading to highly condensed and stable chromatin. The replacement of histones by protamines results in greater than tenfold compaction of sperm chromatin.
Protamines are characterized by an arginine-rich core and cysteine residues. The high level of arginine causes a net positive charge that facilitates strong DNA binding. The cysteine residues facilitate the formation of multiple inter and intra protamine disulphide bonds that are essential for high order of chromatin packaging necessary for normal sperm function. The link between abnormal protamine levels and infertility has been associated with low sperm counts, decreased sperm motility and morphology, diminished fertilization ability and increased sperm chromatin damage.
Aniline blue and CMA3 staining technique help to examine the sperm chromatin packaging quality and the protamine content directly, lysine-rich nucleoproteins determined by acidic aniline blue staining correlates positively with acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. Aniline blue detects the lysine-rich nucleoproteins (histones) and, therefore, give an indication of the levels of protamines in the sperm nucleus.
Aniline Blue staining, which distinguishes between lysine-rich histones on the one hand and arginine and cysteine-rich protamines on the other, can be used to determine the degree of sperm nuclear condensation or maturation. The protamine-rich nuclei of adult spermatozoa with copious arginine and cysteine respond negatively and remain unstained, whereas the histone-rich nuclei of immature spermatozoa with excessive lysine react positively and take up the Aniline Blue stain.
The CMA3 staining method is another indirect technique and is used to determining normal protaminosis. This assay is inversely correlated with the protamination condition of spermatozoa, based on in situ competition between protamine and CMA3.
Because CMA3 is unable to access DNA in the presence of protamines and normally produced disulphide linkages, inclusion of CMA3 can prevent DNA polymerase I from accessing the DNA. As a result, nearly none of the CMA3-negative spermatozoa exhibit nicked DNA. The bright or dull yellow staining of spermatozoa nuclei is used to determine CMA3 staining (CMA3 positive).
In men with poor sperm quality, there is a significant positive connection between DNA fragmentation and chromatin packaging (CMA3 staining). In patients undergoing routine IVF, subzonal insemination (SUZI), or ICSI, correlations between CMA3 staining, sperm morphology, fertilisation, and assisted reproduction result have been discovered. As a result, CMA3 can be used to assess infertile patients since it can stain decondensed, protamine-depleted spermatozoa.
When specific biomarkers of protaminosis and sperm DNA integrity are examined, it becomes clear that their use as indicators associated with chromatin packaging and normal semen parameters can help to reduce the risk of using spermatozoa with defective DNA, resulting in improved male fertility, successful conception, and pregnancy outcomes.