Gynecology 2017-02-11T12:06:28+00:00


Krishna IVF Clinic is a multilingual, state-of-the-art IVF Lab and Fertility Clinic that offers personalised care with latest technology needed to manage infertility & reproductive disorders.

Common problems

Endometriosis: It is a condition where menstruating endometrium is found in the pelvis which causes adhesions, pelvic pain and cysts called chocolate cysts . It can grow on the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bowels, or on the bladder. Rarely, it grows in other parts of the body.

This can lead to infertility and disturb the quality of life . Mostly diagnosed by laparoscopy and ultrasound . Endometriosis is mostly managed by laproscopically ( cystectomy , excision of implants & hysterectomy )


Most common noncancerous tumors among women in reproductive age group . They lead to menstrual problems , infertility and pregnancy losses . They cause infertility by blocking the cervical canal or by blocking the fallopian tubes mechanically.

Fibroids cause heavy menstrual bleeding , which in turn leads to anemia . Bladder is involved when a large fibroid presses over it and in turn causes increased frequency of urination.


It is a disease in which ectopic endometrium goes into the myometrium, the endometrial tissue in the myometrium grows and expands, this in turn causes the uterus to increase in size.

Adenomyosis causes heavy menstrual bleeding, painful cycles and also infertility.

Fibroids and adenomyosis are concurrently present in 30 % of cases.

Most common cause for hysterectomy in perimenopausal women.

Uterine or Endometrial polyps:

Polyps can be benign or maliginant, they are mostly seen in reproductive age group. Smal polyps do not cause infertility unless they are present obstructing the tubal ostia.

Polyps can be diagnosed through ultrasound . Polyps are removed by hysteroscopy, which is an day care procedure.

Pap Smear: 

It is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix, the opening of the uterus. During the procedure, cells from your cervix are gently scraped away and then examined for abnormal growth.

If you’re over 30 and have had three normal Pap tests three years in a row, you can have one every five years if the test is combined with an HPV screening. Women over the age of 65 with a history of normal Pap test results may be able to stop having Pap smears in the future.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): 

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can also cause PID.

1. There are no tests for PID. A diagnosis is usually based on a combination of your medical history, physical exam, and other test results. You may not realize you have PID because your symptoms may be mild, or you may not experience any symptoms. However, if you do have symptoms, you may notice

  • Pain in your lower abdomen;
  • Fever;
  • An unusual discharge with a bad odor from your vagina;
  • Pain and/or bleeding when you have sex;
  • Burning sensation when you urinate; or
  • Bleeding between periods.

2. If diagnosed and treated early, the complications of PID can be prevented. Some of the complications of PID are

  • Formation of scar tissue both outside and inside the fallopian tubes that can lead to tubal blockage;
  • Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb)

3. Infertility (inability to get pregnant)

4. Long-term pelvic/abdominal pain.

Gynecology Krishna IVF Clinic

Contraception (birth control): There are several safe and highly effective methods of birth control available to prevent unintended pregnancy. These include intrauterine contraception, hormonal and barrier methods, and permanent birth control (sterilization). Using effective birth control methods can greatly reduce the chances of having an unintended pregnancy.

Various methods of contraception:

Intrauterine Contraception

  • Copper T intrauterine device (IUD) —This IUD is a small device that is shaped in the form of a “T.” Your doctor places it inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It can stay in your uterus for up to 10 years. Typical use failure rate: 0.8%.
  • Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUD)—The LNG IUD is a small T-shaped device like the Copper T IUD. It is placed inside the uterus by a doctor. It releases a small amount of progestin each day to keep you from getting pregnant. The LNG IUD stays in your uterus for up to 5 years. Typical use failure rate: 0.2%.

Hormonal Methods

  • Implant – The implant is a single, thin rod that is inserted under the skin of a women’s upper arm. The rod contains a progestin that is released into the body over 3 years. Typical use failure rate: 0.05%.
  • Injection – Women get shots of the hormone progestin in the buttocks or arm every three months from their doctor. Typical use failure rate: 6%.
  • Combined oral contraceptives – Also called “the pill,” combined oral contraceptives contain the hormones estrogen and progestin. It is prescribed by a doctor. A pill is taken at the same time each day. If you are older than 35 years and smoke, have a history of blood clots or breast cancer, your doctor may advise you not to take the pill. Typical use failure rate: 9%.
  • Progestin only pill – Unlike the combined pill, the progestin-only pill (sometimes called the mini-pill) only has one hormone, progestin, instead of both estrogen and progestin. It is prescribed by a doctor. It is taken at the same time each day. It may be a good option for women who can’t take estrogen. Typical use failure rate: 9%.
  • Patch – This skin patch is worn on the lower abdomen, buttocks, or upper body (but not on the breasts). This method is prescribed by a doctor. It releases hormones progestin and estrogen into the bloodstream. You put on a new patch once a week for three weeks. During the fourth week, you do not wear a patch, so you can have a menstrual period. Typical use failure rate: 9%.
  • Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring – The ring releases the hormones progestin and estrogen. You place the ring inside your vagina. You wear the ring for three weeks, take it out for the week you have your period, and then put in a new ring. Typical use failure rate: 9%.
  • Emergency contraception – Emergency contraception is NOT a regular method of birth control. Emergency contraception can be used after no birth control was used during sex, or if the birth control method failed, such as if a condom broke.
  • Women can have the Copper T IUD inserted within five days of unprotected sex.

Women can take emergency contraceptive pills up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but the sooner the pills are taken, the better they will work.

Barrier Methods

  • Diaphragm or cervical cap – Each of these barrier methods are placed inside the vagina to cover the cervix to block sperm. The diaphragm is shaped like a shallow cup. The cervical cap is a thimble-shaped cup. Before sexual intercourse, you insert them with spermicide to block or kill sperm. Typical use failure rate: 12%.
  • Male condom – Worn by the man, a male condom keeps sperm from getting into a woman’s body. Latex condoms, the most common type, help prevent pregnancy, and HIV and other STDs, as do the newer synthetic condoms. Typical use failure rate: 18%.
  • Female condom – Worn by the woman, the female condom helps keeps sperm from getting into her body. It is packaged with a lubricant and is available at drug stores. It can be inserted up to eight hours before sexual intercourse. Typical use failure rate: 21%, and also may help prevent STDs.
  • Spermicides – These products work by killing sperm and come in several forms—foam, gel, cream, film, suppository, or tablet. They are placed in the vagina no more than one hour before intercourse. You leave them in place at least six to eight hours after intercourse. You can use a spermicide in addition to a male condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap. Typical use failure rate: 28%.

Fertility Awareness – Based Methods

Natural family planning or fertility awareness – Understanding your monthly fertility pattern can help you plan to get pregnant or avoid getting pregnant. Your fertility pattern is the number of days in the month when you are fertile (able to get pregnant), days when you are infertile, and days when fertility is unlikely, but possible. If you have a regular menstrual cycle, you have about nine or more fertile days each month. If you do not want to get pregnant, you do not have sex on the days you are fertile, or you use a barrier method of birth control on those days. Failure rates vary across these methods.

Overall, typical use failure rate: 24%.

Gynechology Krishna IVF ClinicHysterectomy: A hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman’s uterus . After a hysterectomy, you no longer have menstrual periods and can’t become pregnant. Sometimes the surgery also removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Your might be recommend a hysterectomy if you have

  • Fibroids
  • Endometriosis that hasn’t been cured by medicine or surgery
  • Uterine prolapse – when the uterus drops into the vagina
  • Cancer of the uterine, cervix, or ovaries
  • Vaginal bleeding that persists despite treatment
  • Chronic pelvic pain, as a last resort

A hysterectomy can be done in different ways: through the vagina, through the abdomen, or with laparoscopy. The choice will depend on why you are having the surgery and other factors. Sometimes, the decision is made after the surgery begins and the surgeon is able to see whether other problems are present.

Menopause : Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after age 45. Menopause happens because the woman’s ovaries stop producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

A woman has reached menopause when she has not had a period for one year. Changes and symptoms can start several years earlier. They include

  • A change in periods – shorter or longer, lighter or heavier, with more or less time in between
  • Hot flashes and/or night sweats
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less hair on head, more on face

Some symptoms require treatment. Talk to us about how to best manage menopause.

The Team

Krishna IVF Clinic is a multilingual, state-of-the-art IVF Lab and Fertility Clinic that offers personalised care with latest technology needed to manage infertility & reproductive disorders.

Dr. G.A. Rama Raju
Dr. G.A. Rama RajuDirector - Krishna IVF
Dr. P. Kavitha
Dr. P. KavithaGynaecologists
Dr. B. Kavitha Laxmi
Dr. B. Kavitha LaxmiGynaecologists
Dr. Pranati Mahapatro
Dr. Pranati MahapatroGynaecologists
Dr. V. Raghu Rama Krishna Raju
Dr. V. Raghu Rama Krishna RajuGynaecologists